Cover Crop Combination Used to Improve Soil Health. Photographer: Scott Bauer. Photo Courtesy of USDA NRCS.
Rice, Row Crop, Small Grains
Temperate, Semiarid, Tropical
North America, Europe, Africa, South Asia
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sediment
IPNS aims at reducing the amounts of fertilizer applied to fields and increasing the fertilizer use efficiency by adopting the best time, rate, method and source of application in addition to emphasis conserving and improving soil health. IPNS emphasizes using commercial fertilizer in balance with natural fertilizers--such as organic manure, green manures (e.g. conservation cover crops), crop rotation with legumes, crop residues and bio-fertilizers--to meet part of the nutrient needs of crop and cropping systems. 1
Some barriers to adoption have been identified, especially for small, low-income landholders. Barriers include, need to use livestock manure for fuel, lack of extension services and training on implementation of IPNS, higher labor costs associated with IPNS, and no access to green manure seeds.
Scalable to small farms?
and see FAO document above as well
1 A.K. Nayak, B. Lal, Mohammad Shahid, B.B. Panda, R.Tripathi, R. Raja, and T. Mohapatra. Indian Journal of Fertilizers., (2013). Fertiliser Best Management Practices in Rice for Higher Productivity. Volume 9 (4), pp. 54-66; Rhaman et al 2007